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The Department is tasked with the responsibilities of:
i. Intervening, and dealing with any Land Boundary Disputes that may arise between Nigeria and any of her Neighbors with a view to Settling the Disputes;
ii. Conducting Supervision and Inspection of Pillar Densification, Pillar Identification and Construction along the      International Boundaries;
iii. Sensitization Campaign of the Local Populace living along the International Boundaries;
iv. Monitor and Promote Trans-Border relations between Nigeria and her neighbors;
v. Facilitate equitable utilization of shared Border Resources of Land, e.g. Water, Games, Forest Resources etc.
vi. Resettlement of Communities affected by Boundary Demarcation;
vii. Act as liaison with other International Boundary related bodies.

Nigeria shares International Land and River Boundaries with the following countries:
i) Niger Republic
ii) Republic of Chad
iii) Republic of Cameroon
iv) Republic of Benin

All International Boundaries issues are dealt with at the Technical Team and International Boundary Technical Committee (INBTC) levels. The decisions of the committees are presented to the Board of the National Boundary Commission for approval and/or further directives.

International Boundary Technical Committee (INBTC)
The National Boundary Commission Enabling Act provides for the Establishment of the International Boundary Technical Committee. The Minister of Foreign Affairs is the Chairman of the Committee. Their functions are as follows:
(a) Dealing with matters affecting Nigeria’s Borders with Neighboring Countries including Land and Maritime;
(b) Participate, as may be required in the Delimitation of International Boundaries in accordance with the Delimitation Instruments or documents established for the purpose;
(c) Proffer solutions to any International Boundary problems,
(d) Promote Trans-Border Co-operation and Border Region Development, and
(e) Make appropriate recommendations to the Commission on the effective Boundaries and Borderlands.

Technical Team
The Technical Team headed by the Director-General of the Commission is responsible for the General Administration, Investigations, Negotiations and Management of all Issues Affecting International Boundaries. Representations are made from relevant Agencies. Also, Representatives from State(s) Boundary Committee(s) are Co-opted when matters affecting them are being considered. Discussion on International Boundary issues is done bilaterally with Officials of the neighboring Country concerned.