The NBC (Establishment Act, 2006) provides that the Commission shall carry out functions which include to:
i. intervene, and deal with any disputes that may arise between Nigeria and any of her neighbors with a view to settling the dispute;
ii. intervene, determine and deal with any boundary dispute that may arise among States, Local Government Areas or communities in the Federation with a view to settling the disputes;
iii. define, and delimitate boundaries between States, Local Government Areas or Communities in the Federation and between Nigeria and her neighbors in accordance with delimitation instrument or document established for that purpose;
iv. monitor trans-border relations between Nigeria and her neighbors with a view to detecting areas of tension and possible conflict;
v. promote trans-border co-operation and border region development; etc.